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  • recomended powder factor mining educationcare.in

    recomended powder factor mining. Products List . assessment of powder factor in surface bench blasting using Tech Student, Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004, reliable to enable the determination of optimum powder factor for surface bench . Test Procedure: 2- Hucka [10] recommended that the peak. More details » Get Price. blasting in surface

  • recomended powder factor mining arb-group.eu

    recomended powder factor mining. The Powder Factor Dilemma. In surface mining operations, the weight of explosive used per unit volume of rock blasted is measured in pounds per cubic yard) lb/yd 3) (kg/m 3) to produce broken material is defined as powder factor.However, in underground mining operations the preference is to define powder factor as the weight of explosive required per unit of

  • Chapter 8 BLAST DESIGN National Park Service

    Powder Factor = Tons of rock (or cubic yards) per pounds of explosive. Normal range = 4 to 7 Shallow holes = 1 to 2 External loads = .3 Tons of Rock = Powder Factor lbs of Explosives The higher the powder factor, the lighter the load. Lower powder factor means more explosives. Example: 1.5 tons = PF of 6.25lbs BURDEN-SPACING CALCULATION From

  • Blasting and Explosives Quick Reference Guide 2010

    Powder factor = 0.5kg per square metre of face Do not stem holes. Fire all holes on the same delay, or in groups of ≥ 5 holes Smooth Blasting Spacing = 15 x Hole diameter (hard rock) 20 x Hole diameter (soft rock) Burden = 1.25 x Spacing Fire as many holes as possible on one delay. Stem holes. Powder factors Typical powder factors used in mass blasts Rules of thumb Rock type PF (kg/m3) Hard

  • Selection of Powder Factor in Large-Diameter Blast Holes

    Selection of Powder Factor in Large-Diameter Blast Holes by Jack Eloranta 1995 Abstract This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, "The cheapest crushing is done in the pit", appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a

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  • The Powder Factor Dilemma iRing

    In surface mining operations, the weight of explosive used per unit volume of rock blasted is measured in pounds per cubic yard) lb/yd 3) (kg/m 3) to produce broken material is defined as powder factor.However, in underground mining operations the preference is to define powder factor as the weight of explosive required per unit of weight of rock to fragment either a metric tonne or an

  • A novel powder factor based bench blast design method for

    A NOVEL POWDER FACTOR BASED BENCH BLAST DESIGN METHOD FOR LARGE SURFACE COAL MINES by ANDREW CLIFFORD BLAIR A DISSERTATION Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in MINING ENGINEERING 2015

  • Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Powder factor is the ratio between the amount of rock broken and total weight of explosive consumed. It is an important parameter in blast design and has a vital influence on the resultant fragmentation. Higher powder factor causes oversize and lower powder factor results in crushed rock. Mean fragment size was plotted against the powder factor for 91 blasts of coal overlying overburden

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  • Study of the Powder Factor in Surface Bench

    In this light, the present study was conducted in opencast phosphate mines to see the effect of Schmidt hammer rebound number or transformed compressive strength of rocks on the powder factor. The correlation was found sufficiently reliable to enable the determination of an optimum powder factor for surface bench blast in different rock types, maintaining the required blasting results

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  • Definition of powder factor Mindat

    Mining Companies Statistics Users Mineral Museums Mineral Shows & Events The Mindat Directory Device Settings. Photo Search Photo Galleries New Photos Today New Photos Yesterday Members' Photo Galleries Past Photo of the Day Gallery Mineral Photography. Definition of powder factor. The quantity of explosive used per unit of rock blasted, measured in lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3) per ton (metric ton) of

  • Definition of powder factor Mindat

    Mining Companies Statistics Users Mineral Museums Mineral Shows & Events The Mindat Directory Device Settings. Photo Search Photo Galleries New Photos Today New Photos Yesterday Members' Photo Galleries Past Photo of the Day Gallery Mineral Photography. Definition of powder factor. The quantity of explosive used per unit of rock blasted, measured in lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3) per ton (metric ton) of

  • Journal of Powder Metallurgy and Mining- Open

    Journal of Powder Metallurgy & Mining is an Open Access journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions

  • H BLASTING IN SURFACE EXCAVATION Mining and Blasting

    Powder factor or specific charge or blasting ratio: In surface mining or quarrying, oversize boulders cause delays in loading operations. Boulders or oversize rocks have to be lifted out of the muckpile during digging and set aside for secondary breakage. In underground mines oversize may cause hang-ups in the chutes and orepasses. Oversize rocks may be broken by hydraulic impact breakers

  • Powder Factor McCallum Rock Drilling

    Powder factor is expressed in many different forms. Essentially it is a measurement of explosives per quantity of rock. The typical variation of this that we use on a daily basis is how many pounds of explosives per cubic yard of rock. This gives us a baseline of how we need to go about fragmenting rock for each particular application. A baseline for powder factor or a standard number

  • PAPER OPEN ACCESS Related content Effect of Stemming to

    mining cost [13]. For constant conditions of bench height, powder factor, type of rock, and blast hole diameter and if the charged are fired instantaneously, there is a relationship between S/B in which the displacement and the fragmentation are optimum. In mining operation, the S/B ratio has been in between 1-2 [14], [15]. 2. Field Study and

  • Powder Factor University of Alaska Fairbanks

    Powder Factor is defined as the amount of explosive required to dislodge and fragment 1 cubic yard of rock. [3] The softer (less dense) the material that is being blasted; the smaller the powder factor. Blastability Index (BI) is a variable calculated from the rock mass description (RMD), location of any cracks or weaknesses (referred to as joint plane spacing (JPS) and joint plane orientation

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor Pit

    Powder factor design fell out of favor in the 1870s with the widespread use of dynamite, but it made a comeback in the 1950s due to simplicity of use for blasters working for explosive companies that had to quickly and simply design blasts in the field. Since then, a number of engineers have studied powder factor and its effects on rock

  • literature review of powder factor in mining

    literature review of powder factor in mining. literature review of powder factor in mining Mining & World,Literature Review Great Orme Mines Evidence for prehistoric mining activity has now been reported in many,contributory factor in the developing technology to produce the much needed material,where malachite powder .

  • I UNDERGROUND BLASTING Mining and Blasting Weblog of

    UNDERGROUND BLASTING TUNNELING There are two reasons to go underground and excavate: i. to use the excavated space, e.g. for storage, transport etc. ii. to use the excavated material, e.g. mining and quarrying operations. In both cases tunneling forms an integral part of the entire operation. The main difference between tunnel blasting and bench blasting is that tunnel blasting is done towards

  • Study on optimum powder factor and quality of

    The powder factor in NCL, BCCL, SECL, ECL, WCL and West Bokaro Collieries was in range of the optimum powder factor and quality of explosives was measured. The rating index of bulk explosives is varied in between 70 and 100. The powder factor in hard rock was 1.5 to 2.5m3/kg and in soft rock it was in range of 2.0to 3.m3/kg.

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor Pit

    Powder factor design fell out of favor in the 1870s with the widespread use of dynamite, but it made a comeback in the 1950s due to simplicity of use for blasters working for explosive companies that had to quickly and simply design blasts in the field. Since then, a number of engineers have studied powder factor and its effects on rock

  • Mine call factor issues from a surface EE

    The theory of mine call factor (MCF) compares the sum of metal produced in recovery plus residue to the metal called for by the mines evaluation methods expressed as a percentage. The concept is well known in underground mining scenarios and therefore this article highlights some MCF issues from a surface mine perspective using AngloGold Ashanti Iduapriem mine as a case study.

  • Mining Impact Factor,OMICS International,Journal

    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or geological materials. Mining is done using two excavation types: Surface mining and sub-surface mining. After excavation, the mineral is processed using techniques like Extractive metallurgy and Mineral processing. There are many environmental issues like erosion, loss of biodiversity and ground water contamination by chemicals from mining

  • (PDF) ROCK BLASTING FOR MINING ResearchGate

    Powder factor can be expressed as a quantity of rock broken by a unit weight of explosiv es. Or, Or, alternatively, it can be the amount of exp losives required to break a unit measure of ro ck.

  • Hard Rock Miner's Handbook Stantec

    Hard Rock Miner’s Handbook is a work of the heart. Jack—whose 40+ year career spanned engineering, construction, and operation of mining projects worldwide—conceived of and wrote the first edition of the Handbook, published in June 2000, to assist miners and engineers in the difficult world of hard rock mining. It was his gift to an industry that provided him with employment, challenges

  • Blasting mechanics: Material properties and powder

    Powder factor is simply an economic tool to evaluate various blast designs, as numerous variables will dramatically change the powder factor of the blast to where it can fall anywhere between 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cu. yd. No method exists to accurately calculate a suitable range of ± 0.05 pounds per cu. yd. that could be applied to a design situation. Today’s design approaches must start

  • Journal of Mining Science Home

    Journal of Mining Science is a peer reviewed journal. We use a single blind peer review format. Our team of reviewers includes over 100 experts from 15 countries. The average period from submission to first decision in 2018 was 15 days, and that from first decision to acceptance was 90 days. The rejection rate for submitted manuscripts in 2018 was 50%. The final decision on the acceptance of

  • What is Power Factor: Correction, Formula &

    In general power is the capacity to do work. In electrical domain, electrical power is the amount of electrical energy that can be transferred to some other form (heat, light etc) per unit time. Mathematically it is the product of voltage drop across the element and current flowing through it. Considering first the DC circuits, having only DC voltage sources, the inductors and capacitors

  • fragmentation Mining and Blasting

    POWDER FACTOR. In construction blasting, powder factor (PF) is expressed as quantity (unit mass) of explosive per unit volume of material blasted. For mining, it is usually expressed as quantity of explosive per ton of material (or sometimes tons of material per unit mass of explosive). Fig 5. DELAY TIMING: Very seldom is a conventional blast set off where all charges are detonated in the

  • Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimized Blast

    3rd Iranian Rock Mechanics Conference, 16 18 October 2007 Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran 1217 Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimized Blast Pattern Design Using

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